Chapter 2 Ap human geography Flashcards

demographic accounting equation

In the 1930s, thousands of “okies” fled the dust bowl of the southern great plains and moved to the fertile agricultural regions of california to start a new life. People who leave their home because they are forced out, but not because they are being officially relocated or enslaved. Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities. A long-term move of a person from one political jurisdiction to another. Malcolm Tatum After many years in the teleconferencing industry, Michael decided to embrace his passion for trivia, research, and writing by becoming a full-time freelance writer. Since then, he has contributed articles to a variety of print and online publications, including , and his work has also appeared in poetry collections, devotional anthologies, and several newspapers. Malcolm’s other interests include collecting vinyl records, minor league baseball, and cycling.

Under Soviet power the development of demography has been characterized by profound studies of demographic processes, the development of methods of analysis of population reproduction, and the critique of reactionary theories of population. Korchak-Chepurkovskii occupy prominent places in demographic research. Although all processes of population change are composed of events in the lives of individuals, demography studies them as mass processes, embracing the total number of births, deaths, or shifts of status. See also BIRTH RATE, STANDARDIZED MORTALITY RATIO, FERTILITY, LIFE CHANCES, LIFE EXPECTANCY, EUGENICS. Is the quantitative study of population processes, while evolution is a population process that influences all aspects of biological organisms, including their demography. Demographic traits common to all human populations are the products of biological evolution or the interaction of biological and cultural evolution.

In developed countries with good registration systems , registry statistics are the best method for estimating the number of births and deaths. One of the things we need to know in order to calculate the demographic balancing equation is natural increase, or the population change from births and deaths. Calculating this is pretty easy – just subtract the number of deaths from number of births; that’s how much your population increased or decreased from natural causes. The demographic balancing equation calculates the changes in a population over time.

AP Human Geography Unit 2 Key Terms

The total fertility rate, the number of live births per woman completing her reproductive life, if her childbearing at each age reflected current age-specific fertility rates. Direct data comes from vital statistics registries that track all births and deaths as well as certain changes in legal status such as marriage, divorce, and migration .

demographic accounting equation

Demography is today widely taught in many universities across the world, attracting students with initial training in social sciences, statistics or health studies. Demographic research is conducted in universities, in research institutes, as well as in statistical departments and in several international agencies. Philosophers and politicians have often been interested in the nature and size of populations. Plato, for example, recommended a static population for his ideal city. Politicians have been particularly concerned with over-and underpopulation. Laws were passed in Ancient Rome, for example, which sought to prevent population decline.

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Exponential growth is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-inrceasing population. The description of the structure, distribution, and movement of population on the basis of statistical data is sometimes called descriptive demography. ] the science dealing with populations, including matters of health, disease, births, and mortality. The most important changes in human capital come in the very long run, however, through improved education.

demographic accounting equation

Basic demographic accounting equation of population components of change (ages 0-74) and Medicare enrollment method . The birth rate minus the death rate, suggesting the annual rate of population growth, w/o considering net migration. A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population. The statistical study of populations with reference to natality, mortality, migratory movements, age, and sex, among other social, ethnic, and economic factors. In Russia, the first demographic work on mortality and marriage was done by D. M. V. Lomonosov expressed profound ideas concerning the laws of population development and population policy. In the 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th, demographic research based on native material was conducted at the Academy of Sciences (I. F. German).

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The ratio indicates the extent of capital intensiveness of an economy. Post-Enumeration Surveys The Post-Enumeration Survey measures the accuracy of the census by surveying people and matching responses to the census to determine coverage. An overview of demographic analysis as a method for evaluating census coverage in the United States. A value judgement based on the notion that the resources of a particular area are not great enough to support that area’s current population. The term by which the American South used to be known, as cotton historically dominated the agricultural economy of the region.

In the short run, the amount of physical capital in the economy is more or less fixed. There are a certain number of machines, buildings, and so on, and we cannot make big changes in this capital stock. One thing that firms can do in the short run is to change capital utilization—shutting down a production line if they want to produce less output or running extra shifts if they want more output.

the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations

In 19th-century Europe, census taking improved and more reliable statistics became available for analysis. In the UK, the recording of death, then birth and marriage, rates was introduced after 1834 as the state came to recognize that population change was an actual phenomenon. The legal requirement to collect statistics made them more reliable, thus enabling demographers to apply more rigorous mathematical methods and facilitating their ability to forecast future population changes and developments. FORECASTING relies on assumptions made by the forecaster about populations; any forecast, therefore, is only as good as the assumptions that underlie it.

His work influenced Thomas Robert Malthus, who, writing at the end of the 18th century, feared that, if unchecked, population growth would tend to outstrip growth in food production, leading to ever-increasing famine and poverty . Malthus is seen as the intellectual father of ideas of overpopulation and the limits to growth. Later, more sophisticated and realistic models were presented by Benjamin Gompertz and Verhulst. One of the earliest demographic studies in the modern period was Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt, which contains a primitive form of life table. Among the study’s findings were that one-third of the children in London died before their sixteenth birthday. Mathematicians, such as Edmond Halley, developed the life table as the basis for life insurance mathematics.

What are the 4 types of population?

  • Finite Population.
  • Infinite Population.
  • Existent Population.
  • Hypothetical Population.

Growth accounting is a tool to decompose economic growth into components of input growth and technological progress. In the long run and very long run, technology advances through innovation and the hard work of research and development (R&D) that—hopefully—gives us new inventions.

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When dealing with ethnic groups, however, “net migration” might have to be subdivided into physical migration and ethnic reidentification . Individuals who change their ethnic self-labels or whose ethnic classification in government statistics changes over time may be thought of as migrating or moving from one population subcategory to another. There are a variety of demographic methods for modelling population processes. A sequence of demographic changes in which a country mobes from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time. Those are already on record, so getting that information is a lot easier that conducting a census. Well, hold your horses, ’cause there’s still one more term to figure out.

What is total fertility rate?

It is expressed as children per woman. The total fertility rate is the sum of the age-specific fertility rates for all women multiplied by five. The age-specific fertility rates are those for the seven five-year age groups from 15–19 to 45–49.

Demographic analysis can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion, and ethnicity. Educational institutions usually treat demography as a field of sociology, though there are a number of independent demography departments. Look first at physical capital—the first row in Figure 20.11 “The Different Time Horizons in Economics”.

The English scholar John Graunt ( ) is considered the father of the science of demography. On the basis of death records in London over a number of years, he attempted to construct, for the first time, a “lifespan line”—the basis of mortality tables—and to formulate certain regularities in the pattern of population movement. The problems what is the accounting equation of population and its interrelation with the economy were examined by W. In the 18th century these analyses were developed with the use of mathematical methods by W. A vital advance in the very statement of the problem of studying the laws of the natural movement of population, independent of theological interpretation, was made by J.

demographic accounting equation

However, if the combination of liabilities and net worth does not equal the total of the assets, there is something wrong in the accounting process, and an investigation to uncover the origin of the imbalance should take place immediately. As anyone living in the United States should realize, people enter this country in more ways than just birth and leave in other ways besides death. After all, what kind of melting pot would we be without all the world’s peoples?

Techniques of variance analysis Define variance analysis Review traditional variance analysis Understand flexible budget variance analysis Problem Int…Techniques of variance analysis This requires a responsibility accounting system to be established. The cohort-component model also requires that the age and time intervals be equal in length . The expectation of life , the number of years that an individual at a given age could expect to live at present mortality levels.

Fiorite September 5, 2010 You can also look at the financial accounting equation in another way. The equation is also written as one’s assets are the equivalent of his or her net worth and liabilities. It just another way of saying everything within a person or organizations possession must fall within the owed or owned category, and if the equation does not equal, then there is a problem. Counting birth and death certificates is an easy way to determine natural increase.

We can measure the growth in output, capital stock, and labor hours using easily available economic data. The growth rate of human capital is trickier to measure, although we can use information on schooling and literacy rates to estimate this number. The technical details are not important here, but a good measure of (1 − a) is simply total payments to labor in the economy as a fraction of overall GDP. Period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the United States dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in life.

  • The expectation of life , the number of years that an individual at a given age could expect to live at present mortality levels.
  • In its study of population, therefore, demography is closely linked with a number of other sciences, including political economy, medicine, and ethnology.
  • In the Middle Ages, Christian thinkers devoted much time in refuting the Classical ideas on demography.
  • In every time period, arrivals are added to the total and departures are subtracted.

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Assets refer to the worth of goods or products in the possession of the owner. Liabilities represent the amount of cash or resources that were borrowed in order to acquire the assets. Net worth is the financial worth of the individual, less any outstanding debts to outside entities.

Most commentators agree that the systematic collection and study of population statistics originated with the publication of Natural and Political Observations on https://buzzatee.com/2020/ the Bills of Mortality by John Graunt in 1662. From 1629 onwards, the weekly ‘Bills of Mortality’ gave some indication of the causes of death within a population.